IJPAM: Volume 78, No. 3 (2012)

FIVE PETALS: THE MYSTERIOUS NUMBER
``5" HIDDEN IN NATURE

Yutaka Nishiyama
Department of Business Information
Faculty of Information Management
Osaka University of Economics
2, Osumi Higashiyodogawa Osaka, 533-8533, JAPAN


Abstract. This article examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petal model that draws insight from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than from concepts such as the Fibonacci sequence or the Golden ratio which have been referred to in the past. The conclusions drawn are that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled flowers, and that four petals are unstable and almost no flower can be seven-petaled.

Received: December 14, 2011

AMS Subject Classification: 00A71, 46N60, 92B05

Key Words and Phrases: flower, cell, petal, pentagon, fullerene

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Source: International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
ISSN printed version: 1311-8080
ISSN on-line version: 1314-3395
Year: 2012
Volume: 78
Issue: 3