IJPAM: Volume 80, No. 3 (2012)

NUMERICAL PALINDROMES AND THE 196 PROBLEM

Yutaka Nishiyama
Department of Business Information
Faculty of Information Management
Osaka University of Economics
2, Osumi Higashiyodogawa Osaka, 533-8533, JAPAN


Abstract. The numbers 727, 1991, 38483 and so on, are the same when read forwards or backwards. These numbers are known as numerical palindromes. Let's pick an arbitrary number, reorder the digits in reverse and add it to the original number. It is said that repeating this operation eventually leads to a palindrome. Numbers in the sequence derived from 196 however, do not yield a palindrome. This is an unresolved mathematical problem.

Received: June 5, 2012

AMS Subject Classification: 11A02, 00A09, 97A20

Key Words and Phrases: numerical palindromes, 196 problem, 196 and 879, seed

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Source: International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
ISSN printed version: 1311-8080
ISSN on-line version: 1314-3395
Year: 2012
Volume: 80
Issue: 3